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NASA confirms plan: 2030 human mission
This is credible... and hugely ambitious!
There are 3 confirmed future Mars missions :
These are robotic: ExoMars (Europe - orbiter, lander & rover); Insight (USA - rover); Mars 2020 (USA - rover with astrobiology kit)
Missions To Mars
There are currently 7 active Mars missions:
5 Orbiters (3 USA, 1 India, 1 Europe; plus 2 Rovers (USA)
It is fantastic to see this incredible surge in scientific investigation of our Solar System.  More nations are becoming 'space-faring' [including India] . Theres more international collaboration and certainly more commercial integration. What could possibly go wrong...
Well, we think something WILL go wrong [read on to find out]. So we want the UN and space-faring Nations to update the Outer Space Treaty (OST) NOW to prevent trouble in Space...

In order to encourage this action, we are claiming legal factual possession of Mars [for real!]. If our claim is validated, then we then command considerable leverage to effect those UN actions.  Our claim relates to our 'acts of possession', primarily the sustained, repetitive use of powerful laser light targetting Mars.  We claim this to have a small beneficial effect on the land/atmosphere of Mars, and is consistent with legal proof requirement for Factual Possession and Effective Occupation of  a distant 'difficult' land. We now want others to join our claim, our influence being greater with numbers. Our intent is to pass the legal Mars title into trusteeship of UN once all necessary actions are complete (requires the law to evolve).
"orbit @ Mars"
 This section is six (6)
 years out of date!!!!!
Important Legal Issues:
buy mars and asteroids
If you get bored with the detail, just flick quickly through to the lasers! =>
Oh for an M-type asteroid:
Platinum packed... it's the densely rich M-type ... they're pretty rare
Who's up for platinum?...
Asteroid targeting is key. Asteroids rich in Platinum are going to fly of the shelves.
Water and Iron also useful in Space.
Prospecting In Space:
Deep Space Industries & Planetary Resources (both US companies) are now designing Spacecraft systems for asteroid mining.
Spacex has paved the commercial route to and from space with its returning Dragon Spacecraft.
Well the saloon doors are still swinging after Obama blazed in with this Law Nov 2015... The existing Space Treaty is not helpful for 'Space Business'.  Commercial interests needed a legal framework but this unilateral action does rip into the Space Treaty and will create friction with the other big Space players...
Mars 'n Roids
US "Asteroid Mining Act" now
signed into Law by President
Is an Asteroid a celestial body?
Some suggest if an asteroid can be moved (as in redirect) then it is not a celestial body. Does that mean the Space Treaty does not apply... such that all ownership rights go to the mining company?
Asteroid Redirect will be good for manned missions to Mars.
Astronauts will become less Earth dependent. It will also of course benefit our defence capability wrt rogue asteroids.
Asteroid Mining is not a really bad thing...
Responsible "exploitation" is surely possible ... but an internationally agreed legal base is needed
Credit should go to US & NASA for their relative openness with respect to exploration, mining and even defence. They do cop a lot of criticism from some other space-faring nations who are rather less open. Current attempts (via UN) to gain a new Space Treaty or code-of-practice dont appear 100% engaged. Indeed the Treaties are often seen (by the big players) as hurdles to negotiate!...

To avoid the restrictions of the existing Space Treaty, a Space Faring nation only needs to give one years notice to pull out of the treaty altogether.
Move it and mine it
Asteroid Mining Projects;
Asteroid Redirect Mission
Space Weaponization: everyone agrees its just a matter of time...
Even a senior Chinese military official stated this (and they dont say much in public).
Space faring nations will dump the existing Space Treaty soon.
Already it is seen as an outdated obstacle that can be negotiated. (see US Asteroid Act)
...BUT, theres nothing to stop space weaponization if nations pull out..
The Space Treaty protects us ... but
It will be abandoned. Why?... because although it is strong on this subject it is weak on others. It doesn't address space commerce well, nor tackle Earth based "space weapons". It will be pronounced unfit for purpose.
This is now openly recognised [despite the Treaty in Place]
So, what of the current UN based efforts to deal with this risk?...
Its all tell and no show, we're sad to say. Plenty of Nation cliques coming up with proposed 'codes-of-practice'. Yet none is sufficiently appealling to the other cliques. Everyone knows which issues are a proplem for which nation ... but theres a general willingness to let things slide and leave US looking like the bad guy (largely unfair)
"You talkin to ME?"
Massive militarization of Space WILL soon happen ... end of
A local dispute in Space is World News
If injuries or a death results then tensions will soar back on Earth. Can we rely on cool collaborative efforts to resolve things?
There's NO Space Police ... not yet

Local disputes can always escalate!
Past experience tells us so... We need good laws in place, ASAP.
Without a ratified relevent new Treaty, countries/companies are likely to argue over stuff: rights to mining sites etc.
Humans... we know what we're like.

Without clear laws in place there will be trouble ahead. Mining in space WILL happen. The existing old Space Treaty does touch on Space business, but not in an explicit, clear manner that is relevent to commercial mining and rights there-on. There's loads of wriggle room [hence the US Asteroid Act], but more worryingly, there are now signs it will be dropped completely.
Mars Tomorrow: "Get off my Claim"
Local dispute between miners?..
or pawns in the big chess game?
If International relations sour (any reason):
Dual-use space equipment might rapidly turn nasty.
We are thinking satelite based high energy lasers.
THIS is not going to end well...
"Why didn't we forge a new Treaty when we had the chance?"
Dual-Use Space Equipment: it sneaks up on us all...
Even while the Space Treaty still applies, the dual-use concept (commercial/military) is currently delivering all sorts of packages into Space.
Mars might look like a tricky inhospitable place, but if we're not careful, the remnants of our torn families may have to move off to that distant holiday home for ever.
Hot enough for ya?
James Bond? Austin Powers? No... its just what we humans always do.
Is nice work in scrabble... but not good for celestial safety. We need to anticipate the next big Solar System scene and agree on a firm but fair door entry policy.
The full Space Treaty is really 5 treaties:
The 5th treaty is the so called "Moon Agreement"which was not signed by ANY Space-faring nations (meaning they can largely ignore it).
The problem here?... We dont yet get how important this is...
1967: the summer of LOVE and SPeACE
The Space Treaty is a child of its time. It goes to town on space security and human heritage but fails to deliver on modern commercial practice.
It can be dumped by any of the national signatories after 1 yr.
In the West at least, theres a palpable sense that the Space Treaty, although strong against weapons in space and sovereignty issues, is snuffing out commercial opportunity. For the Treaty to disintegrate, it will just take one major space faring nation to pull out ... then it's toast.

It will fall because its bad for business... but the result will be a massive vacuum-packed arsenal of supercharged weapons.

We at OUTERSPeACE say we need an updated or new relevant Space Treaty, ASAP. We need a Treaty or Deal that is space-business friendly, clarifies issues around land use/acquisition, manages space debris and further restricts  weaponization.

We also say the UN needs to become 'The Trustee' for Mars and our Solar least in the short to medium term, until a separate international governing body can be agreed. The UN will need to be fair but still market friendly.
Its the law... until you reject it
No weapons?... Great, welcome to Space! ... Now dont touch anything ... we are a public museum you know
Administering Authority:
The stewardship of the Trusteeship council was usually exerted via an Administering Authority (the ex-colonial power)... but this Authority could instead be a hand-picked business-savvy UN committee.
The Trusteeship Council managed countries away from colonial rule to independence.
It wasn't a roaring success but it mostly worked ... and they've got nil to do right now!
Bureaucrats in charge?... is that really the best answer?...
Whilst acknowledging Gammon's Law (Max, an old friend), we must still trust in the UN on this one. Brave and effective stewardship at a commercial pace ... the World expects!
The UN as Trustee for Outer Space?... so all celestial bodies in the Solar System are held in a Trust.

We're not advocating full Gandhian trusteeship here ... not quite. Yet the trusteeship model is tested and can be business friendly whilst ensuring peaceful Space development. Space mining companies could raise the huge investment sums up front because they have an agreed contract with the trustee. So they can mine the territory as agreed but not then lay claim to other resources or neighbouring land. Admittedly the UN would need to appoint a nimble space savvy council, with good decision making structures. It will need to be market friendly as well as fair. The trusteeship model should then appease National rivalries and fear. It will encourage international collaborations. In the longer term a separate bespoke International body would probably assume this managing/facillitating role.

OK, so how can we make this happen?...
UN Trusteeship Council: its waiting for something to do!
UN Trusteeship is tried and tested...
It can guarantee contracts for space commerce and ensure celestial safety
Have we lost you? Is everything just getting a bit silly?...
Well, we ask you to hang in there at at least read on a bit further...
The UN could form a one-time-only Celestial Registry.
Presuming we do have the legal authority to be registered as Martian land owners, only the UN can provide such registration (Space Treaty blocks national registrations).
We think we're smart (a weakness):
We think that if we can demonstrate our legal right to claim celestial land (Mars, initially) then we can get title registration... but from who?

So, in order to effect those goals we are claiming the legal right to celestial land [Mars] ...
Right, so are we saying we're TRULY legally well positioned to claim Mars!???

Yes, bang on.... legally...really.

Before we lose you ... please read on. Over the next few pages we will explain our case...

We have looked at ways we could:
1/ Get UN to assume an effective Celestial Trusteeship role.
2/ Get UN and Space-faring nations to ratify an updated (or even a new one) relevant Space Treaty.
3/ REWARD all Mars land claimants that join our 'venture'.

We think the best way to deliver this goal is if we [together with all the claims registered through this website] could legally prove possession and thus gain titled ownership of celestial land... and then offer it up to the UN, conditional upon them assuming the trusteeship role, getting that new Treaty signed and paying off our claimants for the Mars land.

So, all we needed was an effective plan to gain "factual possession" of celestial land ... in 2010 we chose Mars...

Where there's blame, there's a claim...
We're blaming Space Treaty ignorance
UN Trusteeship and a new Space Treaty wont just naturally appear...We require smart actions to make them happen.
Legal Issues:
So, for a sound legal case, we must aim to prove factual possession and some administrative activity...
Ok... so what might constitute factual possession on a distant, naturally ununhabitable land like Mars? ......
The Space treaty, the intent:
The Space treaty intended Outer Space to be "res communis" [an international commons] rather akin to international waters, rather than "terra nullius", the sort of territory that is unclaimed yet claimable. It succeeds in barring Nations from claiming sovereign celestial acquisitions, but does not address commercial entities or indiviuals as such. The "Moon Agreement" did address this loophole, but it is a failed agreement that was not signed by any space-faring nations.
Effective Occupation = factual possession, often with visible signs of state administrative activity [we think]
Nations acquired 'ungoverned / nobody's land' [terra nullius] through Effective Occupation. Squatters now acquire land through Adverse Possession [factual possession with animus possidendi]
So, how could anyone claim Land on Mars? Forget the numbers of people who have, in the past, made random claims of celestial acquisition without any evidence of possession (and in some cases have been dishing out self-produced celestial deeds for sale as expensive 'novelty gifts'). No, we are VERY different. We will demonstrate a LEGAL entitlement to such land...

New territory (there's not really any left on Earth) is gained in many ways. The method we descibe here is that of "Effective Occupation".
From Sir Ian Brownlie's fabulous work "Aquisition and transfer of territorial sovereignty," he decribes that [for sovereign aquisitions]  Effective Occupation in International Law is "equivalent" to what private law would term Possession" (as with "adverse possession", the means by which a squatter gains ownership of either unregistered or registered land).

So, this tells us that the key to aquisition by effective occupation is to prove "factual possession".
We need a copy of "Aquisition of new land/territory for dummies"
Public International Law:
How difficult could it be?
The Law:
This high level academic legal review is well worth reading (by those Professors McDougal, Lasswell, Vlasic and Smith).
Interesting to see the view pre-Space Treaty:
They state that if, in future, land on Celestial Bodies were available/vulnerable to acquisition, then "a new international agency for the registration and regulation of claim, would appear indispensable" * Exactly! *
They also state that in future, organisations and individuals will "insist upon being accorded a competence to claim, enjoy, and acquire".
Examples of "Continuous Actual Possession" and guide to assessment:
Possession did not require actual occupation [Powell v Mcfarlane]
In the case of open land, absolute physical control is  normally impractical [The law of Real Property]
Legal policy may lead a court to regard as sufficient a tenuous connection with the territory in certain conditions [Principles of Public International Law]
Effective Occupation does not necessarily require the settlement of the territory or a physical presence [Brilmayer and Klein]
Where marshy land is virtually useless except for shooting, shooting over it may amount to [adverse] possession [The law of Real Property]
In many cases [adverse] possesion cannot in thre nature of things be day to day (The Law of Real property]
Continuous Possession: depends on the nature of land/property. Possession of a ski lodge can be continuous even if it is only used during the winter months
First Possession via TelePossession:
sunken treasure case, [Columbus-America Discovery Group, Inc. v. Atlantic Mutual Ins. Co.], the court allowed the establishment of rights through the use of remote video cameras which produced live images -- coining the term "telepossession" -- and did not require physical possession. The court held that the first finder could legitimately use cameras to show its capability of retrieving the treasure. It satisfied pedis possessio apparently.  Space lawyers are jumping around this as a possible means to get mining rights. We also think it could help us towards a claim for Mars land possession.
We consulted many relevent texts in International Law. As well as Brodie's we found Sharma's book to be most useful [Territorial Acquisition, disputes and International Law].

He states that "the most systematic and solid study of the same problem [Effective Occupation] was done by Professors McDougal, Lasswell and Vlasic". They found 3 separate categories of land which each required different levels of "Factual Possession" in order for Effective Occupation (and hence ownership) to be recognised... Category 1 land [resource rich and ready for settlement] required evidence of trade and settlement; Category 2 land [resources ready for trade but not ready for full settlement] required some evidence of Governance and trade activities; Category 3 land [resources poor or difficult to exploit and not ready for settlement eg. Polar regions & some islands] required only some evidence of intent to occupy and some evidence of ongoing administrative authority/planning.

So class 3 did not require settlement, pedis possessio or any actual human presence on the land. Although class 3 would appear to apply to Mars, we would suggest that the Professors would have added a 4th class for Mars (think atmosphere not fit for breathing, atmospheric pressure not fit for human exposure without pressure suit, resources most difficult to exploit ... oh, and 222 Million KM distance away (average)! So, for legally correct Factual Possession (and hence Effective Occupation) of Mars,  we would expect even less requirement for a human to go there and even less requirement for visible governance/adminstration activities.

To prove Factual Possession we should show that we have been "dealing with the land in question as an occupying owner might have been expected to deal with it and that no one else has done so."[from House of Lords approved statement of the law (UK)]
Effective Occupation? [Antarctica]
Effective Occupation | Factual Possession | Intention|
First Possession | Tele-Possession | Pedis Possessio |
Animus Occupandi & Possidendi | Corpus Occupandi|
Legal Issues
We Need to demostrate some controlling / governance / administrative activity:
We have indeed done just that ... read on to find out ....
We need to demostrate activity that is directed at benefitting land on Mars and preparing this land for future terraforming:
We planned this, did this [Earth based activity that should benefit Mars], and continue to do this ... read on to find out what/how...
Declaration of the Claim!
We must openly declare our intent & right to possess and gain ownership of Mars.
We planned for that, did it and continue to do it... read on to understand how...
We need a clear strategy that can provide obvious consistent evidence of Factual Possession.

The fact that Mars is very far away leads to a perceptual problem. It is difficult to perceive that anyone could have ownership rights to anything that far away!
The application of International Law has [with respect to territorial disputes and claim of Effective Occupation] sometimes acknowledged the "Principle of Contiguity". Hence a small Danish presence on the Greenland coast lead to legal acquisition of Title for all of Greenland.... also a larger Island may get ownership/control over a smaller nearby island.

On a clear night we might often have uninterupted line of sight to Mars. There's nothing between us apart from a bit of local gas and then empty space. With respect to the scale of our Solar System (never mind galaxy scales), Earth and Mars could be regarded as a close couple with earth being the big [controlling?] "island".

We should all realise that on a celestial scale, Earth and Mars are extremely close. Thus any useful activity done on Earth in order to directly benefit or prepare the land on Mars [for future terraforming: habitation, farming, mining], should be considered consistent with factual Possession [doing that which an owner-occupier might be expected to do]. In the picture [left], the girl spraying Mars with water from Earth could well have her claim to Mars validated as she has been benefitting and preparing the land for organic life and farming.
Near Neighbours - Big and Little Brothers?
So you want a Celestial Body?
We assert that the regular laser targetting of Mars is consistent with requirement for Actual Possession and also that it absolutely does not contravene the Space Treaty 1967.
Do read on to see how we have been using the lasers, how they benefit Mars and also how they do not conflict with the Space Treaty.
Laser Safety
We have undertaken laser safety training and abide by strict Standard Operating Procedures in order to avoid any injury to ground-based persons and to prevent any close encounter sufficient to distract (or worse, injure) flight crew of aircraft.
In 6 years we have had NO significant events to report to our Risk Register.
We use powerful lasers safely targetted at Mars:
1/ The 100mW green laser repeatedly delivers Morse Code messages to Mars, announcing our peaceful claim of possession and ownership of Mars.
2/ The 100mW-3500mW lasers repeatedly deliver sustained [up to 10 minutes each time] powerful beams of red or blue light directed at Mars when positioned highest in a clear sky.
We've done all this regularly since 2010.
Unlike the US Asteroid Act, our strategy does not rip into the Space Treaty. It elegantly traverses it:

The background: Mars could do with a bit more heat and light. This would effectively release a lot of CO2 gas and H2O water from the icy polar reserves. This could lead to a greenhouse effect which would [in the case of Mars, not Earth!] benefit human endevours to live there. ie Terraforming.

In order to terraform the planet the atmosphere will probably need to be augmented through the release of that CO2 (dense gas... will raise atm pressure). Also, any simple biological life (single cell extremophiles bacteria and algae) will need extra heat/light and any released H20. In future this may involve giant Mars-orbiting mirrors focussing sunlight onto the poles. However, lasers may well be used instead (eg a 'solaser' or high powered laser trigger for nuclear fusion reactions in the poles (via inertial confinement). Lasers may also be used in pre-terrafoming studies to observe local rections to added heat / light (study the gas release (sublimation) and how this effects the local atmosphere, liquid H2O availability and response by any primitive life).

So the cornerstone of our Earth-based activities to benefit Mars, is the frequent targetted use of strong laser light [focussed on Mars] in order to benefit [albeit minimally] the atmospheric composition and any photosynthetic life [eg bacteria or algae]. This activity will have an effect [a non-zero value] that should be regarded as a positive effect and very much in keeping with future scaled up options for terraforming preparation and early algaculture. We say this activity is entirely consistent with evidence requirements for Factual Possession"
How to make an omelette
without breaking eggs!...
The Science:

Laser beam accuracy and stability:
In many cases the laser beam is synched with the narrow field of view of an astronomical telescope, on which it is firmly mounted [within a bracket]. The telescope we use [SKYMAX-127 SynScan™ AZ GOTO], once correctly aligned, will follow Mars precisely, thus allowing brilliant targetting by the fixed laser over quite prolonged periods.
We sometimes use a separate laser tripod alonside a smaller telescope [Skywatcher Heritage 100P Dobsonian Telescope], often indoors at a large open window.

Laser Communications: Free Space Optics...
The Wicked Laser EVO [100+mW] comes with a smart-port which links to an Android App which, amonst other things, enables the coding and sending of Morse Code laser beam communications.
This jittery / fragile App is still amazing!
Our class 3B and class 4 powerful lasers:
These lasers require safety keys and other safety components. The correct laser goggles must be worn.
We use SkyTech Lasers and Wicked Lasers, both of Hong Kong.
We have a full page coming up on outdoor laser safety... so read on
We have employed poweful red and blue lasers mainly (100mW-3500mW). Several reasons for that... there is emerging evidence that many photosynthesing plants grow or reproduce faster in a combination of blue and red light (perhaps not surprising since green light is often reflected... hence green leaves etc). Given the divergence of the beam there may be >120 million incident photons per Square Km [of Mars] per second.  This is quite a spread, so it's the blue photons which carry most energy for effective transfer in isolated collisions with plant or ice atoms/molecules. Incident blue photons may release CO2 from soil into atmosphere [a probable requirement of terraforming]. Also, blue and red light is much less visible that green light. It is therefore much less likely to be a distraction hazard should we accidentally bring our beam within a few Km of an aircraft [which has never happened].
We do use a 100mW [class 3B] green laser for Morse Code messaging ["We own Mars"], but this is entirely due to the integrated software capability of this unique laser.
Our most powerful laser is a 3500mW [450nm] blue portable laser which retains good beam divergence [<2.5 mRAD] and blasting out 7.9 x 10^18 photons per second. We deploy red or infra-red lasers (100mW-2000mW) when target planet is low in the night sky (<20deg), in order to reduce effects of scattering.
NOTE: the estimate for photons/Sq Km of the divergent beam is somewhat inaccurate in that whilst the beam is symmetrical, it is not uniform in intensity.... its stronger in the centre and down to 50% (or less) at the defined diameter edges. This does of course mean that if our aim is good then even more photons are hitting our target!
1000mW (1W) blue laser plus the
huge 3500mW (3.5W) blue laser


Red and blue laser light will possibly encourage growth of photosynthetic organic life more than natural sun light

The Science:
Can the >100mW Green laser send a coherent Morse Code signal to Mars?...
We believe it can. I twice previously sent a short manual MC message using a dark-board block and a 1000mW blue laser [timed by digital metronome], but it was tricky. Mostly I had used 100mW red, green and blue lasers [In 2010 just a 5mW laser]. The manual method employed a slow technique, with metronome no faster than 40bpm. This allowed for better personal control and less errors. Also the sustained "on beam" signals would be less likely to be corrupted by thin passing cloud or other atmospheric disturbance [compared to a rapid signal].
The current >100mW laser houses a 'smartport' for an Android App to control Morse Coded messages. This is now very easy to do.  See the stats for this laser in the next slide...
25 - 26 May 2016 Mars Opposition [76 Million km distance]:
We observed and lasered Mars [plus Jupiter and Saturn] for sustained periods using red laser [100mW], blue lasers [1000mW and 35000mW] and the >100mW Green laser for Morse Code messaging.
With a clear night we had a direct line of sight to Mars at 17 degrees Alt [Jupiter much higher]. Despite the greater Air Mass [compared to 2014 opposition], the shorter distance this time between the planets meant that we could still deliver >120 million photons per Sq Km per second [to the 'perpendicular' facing surface of Mars]. Up to 4.5 Quadrillion photons per second were hitting Mars for sustained periods [5 minutes continuous with the 1W blue and 100mW red, plus 30s continuous with 3.5W blue]. This is a lot... but still a trillion times weaker than all incident visible starlight energy [on a clear dark Mars night].
Soon after Mars Opposition 2014 [distance ~ 100 Million KM] we observed and laser-targetted Mars:
We were in the Maldives and Mars was high in the evening sky [80 deg, so Air Mass just 1.014]. With a clear sky, tripod mount and a 2000mW blue laser we aimed directly at Mars and estimate 64 million photons per Sq Km per second [hitting the 'perpendicular surface' of Mars]... thats 64 photons per sq-m/s [m^2/s].
YES...that's a big YES...

On a clear night, with clear line of sight [and Mars at least 15 deg altitude], we absolutely can.
Our lasers are quite powerful, so they somewhat reinforce the method, but even small hand-held laser pointers (<5mW) can hit Mars with a very sparse beam.
Our concern is with accuracy and stability of the laser beam such that 'near-perfect' targetting [and following] together with human safety can be assured.
This is gained using a laser bracket mounted on a super-aligned astronomical telescope which uses 'GOTO' software/hardware to follow the planet nearly perfectly.

What about the math?... we show you our equations in the Science Section. In brief, we accounted for the altitude of Mars in the sky [recently low at transition, about 17 degrees] and thus the resultant Air Mass co-efficient [at 17 degrees our laser has nearly 3.5x as much atmosphere to push through compared to the vertical]. We use the laser power, beam divergence [mrad], initial beam diameter, wavelength and distance to target [plus Mars' movement/speed and effective diameter] in order to calculate the number of photons hitting Mars per unit area. Our best to date [for Mars] is approx 125 million photons per Sq Km. NOTE: we use red lasers (instead of blue) when Mars lies at low angles in the night sky.

"So what about the light-time 'from and to' Mars ... did you account for that?" ... Yes we did so keep reading...
Anyone for Laser-Math?
Yeah, Yeah ... so you think you can hit Planet Mars with a portable laser?? !
Science Issues:
From late Oct 2015 we have targetted other planets also:
As well as Mars we targetted first Jupiter in the early morning sky (04.30-05.00) and then by late December, Saturn also.
We used the same techniques as for Mars, including Morse Code claims of possession. In the case of Saturn and Jupiter, it is the moons (Europa and Titan esp) that we claimed most earnestly.
Again, although we wish to prove factual possession, our goal is to have them pass into the trusteeship of UN... we think this should be the blueprint for all celestial bodies.
Note: on occasion we have also sent these Morse Code messages almost vertically through clear skies. Recently we targetted Vega (very bright in Lyra) to receive the messages... the Air Mass is minimal [~1] at above 70 degrees such as Vega has been recently.
We also claim that the >100mW Green laser can deliver 'coherent' Morse Code to Mars and beyond.
>10 million photons per sq Km per s arrive at Mars. A sensitive 10m x 10m detector would receive >1000 'extra' green photons for every second that the coded pulses were generated [ie the dots and dashes... not the pauses]. This signal strength should be sufficient to tolerate any initial atmospheric effects without corrupting the message. Indeed, because the message is normally sent directly to Mars, the majority of the divergent beam will continue onwards [as a Mars 'fly-past'] into the depths of Space. Any further distant [but very sensitive and specifically angled] deep space detector might detect such a signal emanating from distant planet Earth, directed to Mars and beyond. The linear 'photonic' connection between Earth and Mars would make the decoding process much easier [in the messsage we claim peaceful possession and ownership of Mars].
Our lasers may effect some small chemical benefits and possibly even organic benefit if primitive photosynthetic life is present.
>120 Million energetic blue laser photons [and a similar number of red photons] hitting a Sq Km of land on Mars is not "nothing". It will have a non zero effect ... we say a measurably positive effect [if sufficiently sensitive physical / chemical / biological monitoring on Mars were currently possible].  CO2 sublimation [and H2O liquid perhaps] is certainly possible and is exactly the effect, on a larger scale, which Terraforming is likely to require [for atmospheric pressure and stability mainly]. Any primitive photosynthetic life will likely benefit from the extra blue & red photons {bacterial extremophiles or simple algaes?]. Our actions may be the first steps towards atmospheric adjustment, algaculture & farming on Mars!
Do we make positional adjustments to the laser (ie aim ahead of Mars' path) to account for the light-time from and to Mars?...
Usually... a small amount. When Mars is little more than 5 light minutes away from us, then we make a minimal adjustment but the planet is still pretty much central in the telescope eyepiece. We anticipate Mars a little more (still within the high-power field of view) when light time from Earth to Mars is 10 minutes. The small adjustment must then account for Mars velocity over 20 minutes (10 x 2). We generally have not done much targetting of Mars beyond 15 mins distance [small "apparent size" and  closer proximity to sun]. Mars moves in orbit 86000 km/hr. It is the velocity (speed & direction) of Mars that is relevant.  Note that special relativity applies. The velocity of the laser light source does not matter (ie. Earth's orbital and rotational velocities).
*Remember that light travels in straight lines. The overwhelming cause of the perceived 'movement' of stars and planets we see overnight is the Earths own rotation (360 deg in a day, approx). So there's no need to calculate adjustment for this ... we shoot the laser at where we see Mars to be, often adjusting slighly "ahead" (depending on the current Earth-Mars light time)  and simply track it east to west.  The generally symetrical spread of the laser beam (about 30x Mars' diameter when close and obviously much wider when further away) is certainly large enough to accommodate very minor targeting errors.
So, is 120 Million photons per Sq Km per second enough to effect anything on Mars? Well, it is definately a non-zero effect. The 'extra' 120 photons impacting every Sq Metre per second would be measurable by a sensitive detector. The individial impacts could definately liberate CO2 from dry ice (and water from ice?) if already 'on the cusp' [ as happens at seasons' change on Mars]. Whilst not able to directly trigger a greenhouse chain reaction, it will enable small local [but nevertheless positive] effects to occur. In future [and perhaps with a similar power laser orbiting Mars rather than from Earth], such local effects could be studied in a pre-terraforming project, in order to understand the chemical/environment effect plus the possible direct benefit to any primitive extremophiles [bacteria] or algae. Our current laser actions and effects are in keeping with pre-terraforming and terraforming projects, but at lesser order of scale.
Googols of Google searches later...
Cause and Effect
Science Issues:
Free Space Optics [FSO]... the next big thing:
Certainly it could be... a 1W blue laser beam from Earth was observed on the ISS and then in 2014 a 2.5W blue laser sent a full message from ISS to Earth based observatory in a few seconds [compared to the several minutes that normal communications required]. FSO is already being used for a variety of Earth based communications [where line of sight is possible]; however it interests us most that it will likely be developed to become the basis for communications during the first manned Mars mission(s) by 2030. We acknowledge, as per opinions from SETI and METI, that due diligence and caution should be observed before sending human statements off into Space. However, we have taken time to do this. We are also aware of the plethora of mostly uncontrolled indirect, but also direct radio-wave messaging to Space. In fact, we also send a weekly "Mars Claim" message with SpaceSpeak.
The "EVO" Morse Code App is fragile and failure prone, but still amazing!
This is a piece of free Open-Source software [originally applied to Android and Apple, but has since been removed from Apple stores] that can be applied via smartphone and a smartport attached to the laser itself. It has several other features other than Morse Code [including strobing]: they also share in the rather brittle performance. Overall, the code can usually be successfully set to play on a loop, such that 3-5 loops are delivered before 'breakdown'. This is still extremely impressive ... efficient & effective without any evidence of coding errors.... and hugely saving on stressful effort.
Our manual Morse Code messages were error strewn:
As many as half of our manually delivered messages (total messages: approx 15 in 2010, then 7-10 per year until early 2016) contained minor errors which would make decoding more difficult. The lengthened on-off times with this method proved tiring to deliver but probably enhanced the intelligibility of the 'photonic code', in that atmospheric disturbances [whispy clouds and floating particulate matter] were rather less likely to interupt the signal sufficient for code failure.
Declaring peaceful possession and ownership of Planet Mars:

The initial Morse Coded communication [2010] was very lengthy in transmission... it was done manually using laser and a beam-blocker:
A flat dark card [or the planisphere sky-map] was used together with a slow metronome and an on-off bar chart plotted against time.
Recently, with the acquisition of the Wicked Laser "Evo" model, a Morse Code App (@ Android store) can be applied directly to laser via mobile phone and a 'smartport'. Messaging is now seamless and allows for laser beam fine-tuning during tracking and easier monitoring of the skies [plus flightradar24 app] for encroaching aircraft. More than 10 million photons per sq Km per second have been reaching the surface of Mars. Sensitive detectors on Mars or even further beyond should be able to detect and decode the messages [>1000 coded photons would hit a 10m sq detector on Mars every second]... extra sensitive detectors deep in space might still gather the message, with decoding made easier by noting the linear path from Earth to Mars and beyond. These messages generally declare a claim of peaceful possession and right to own Planet Mars [more recently the same model has been applied to Jupiter & Saturn [including the moons].
Have you had enough?... Or do you want some Morse?
Laser Morse Code:
Free Space Optics
Blue v Green v Red lasers:
Because of extreme sensitivity of the human eye to green we avoid its use in the sky other than for the Morse Code messages (the software for which is linked to a specific green laser).
Our blue lasers are the most powerful [1W and 3.5W, the well-used 2W laser having 'died' recently] and have good divergence also [2.5 mrad]. However we have one red "nano" laser at 100mW with only 0.5mrad divergence. This leads to better collimation and better targetting. Our calculations show that for the recent Mars Opposition, just as mainy red photons hit Mars as blue photons, yet the blue laser was 35x more powerful! That's down to  less beam divergence. Still, although the total numbers were similar [approx 125 million photons/square Km per second], the blue photons carry more energy, hence more energy hit mars from blue than red laser.
Telescope aligment with night sky:
We usually use a "2-star alignment method", whereby we acurately locate a star, first by finderscope (or mounted laser), then into centre of eyepiece and record this position into the telescope computer. We repeat this for a second star [currently we mostly use Arcturus and Vega or Regulus, depending on time and view]. A superior alignment is gained if first a star is centred within the lower power wide-field eyepiece and then adjusted slightly further [if necessary] to land central within a higher power, narrow field eyepiece. The computerized "GOTO" telescope is now fully capable of taking you to all the celestial wonders within its library and then following them acurately despite Earth's continuous rotation. Indeed, if aligned well, the scope will fix and follow Mars, maintaining it in central 'field-of-view' [in eyepiece] for prolonged periods without need for manual fine tuning.
Laser and Telescope alignment:
Ideally during daylight the telescope should be focussed precisely on a distant [>1Km] non reflective object, with the centre of that object being central within the eyepiece. Without adjusting the telescope further,  the laser, mounted on the telescope, should be safely deployed and slight adjustments made to position within bracket until the beam lands perfectly on the same distant spot. Fix the laser securely at this alignment. *Do not recheck laser beam position by viewing through telescope as there is significant risk of retinal damage from magnified reflected light *
For sustained astronomy and laser applications we use an outdoor astronomical telescope mounted on a sturdy tripod. We use a "SkyWatcher SKYMAX-127 SynScan™ AZ GOTO" which maintains a library of celestial locations. It will correctly 'goto' and track any such object [eg Mars] as long as we have first aligned it very accurately. First we align a finderscope and a laser (housed in a bracket for telescope fitting) with the telescope view [IMPORTANT: a powerful laser aimed at a distant object (not a twinkling star) should not be viewed through the telescope! .. the alignment is done in series, not in parallel].  Then, in darkness, we use a precise 2-star alignment method, such that the telescope [on a Alt-Azimuth 'GoTo' Mount] can now be used to fix on Mars and track it seamlessly.
We have Standard Operating Procedures for any class 3B or 4 laser use, requiring a plan for managing the vicinity around the telescope sight [including luminous 'Laser Warning' signage and often a spotter - someone undertsanding of the protocol who will watch for people and aircraft], conditions for laser usage  [including need for: clear sky; clear line of sight with no reflective obstacles; suitable location beyond a safely prescribed distance from airports or airport runway approach; fixation to tripod or telescope; operator training in equipment use and laser safety] plus 'FlightRadar24' App running live. This particular telescope removes any need for manual positional adjustments every 2 minutes and thus allows more focus on laser safety and sky monitoring for aircraft. There have been no significant events or 'close calls' to report to our risk register. We do complete a yearly risk assessment and record the information on file in the risk register.
We have a smaller Dobsonian telescope which [although good to position outdoors on picnic tables and car bonnets] is ideally suited for quick planet viewings from a large open window. We will often use a class 3R or 3B laser, mounted on tripod, for short applications of beam to the planets [mainly Mars but recently Jupiter and Saturn as well (mostly for their moons!)]. We have a corner location in office termed Astronomy Corner which stays always ready for "Scramble": the 'Skywatcher Heritage 100P Dobsonian Telescope' sits ready at the window with tripod and a boxed 100mW red laser. A quick check on "stellarium" [see for free download] and / or and we can have the planet positively identified within telescope eyepiece and a 2-minute laser application all done within 10 minutes from start-to-finish.

When Mars is readily visible in the night or early morning sky we would use the Dobsonian-with-laser very frequently, perhaps twice weekly. The outdoor SkyMax 127 is then deployed for 2-3 hours [with powerful 3B / 4 lasers], usually 4+ times per month when Mars [or Jupiter / Saturn] is viewable.
Reliant on clear sky with direct line of sight.
Not a daily occurrance at latitude 51deg N!
Target Mars
If we hear a plane but cannot see it, we switch off the laser!
Other Airports:
Heathrow [43Km North East from us]: No scheduled flights between 2300 and 0430.
Southampton [44Km WSW of us]: Operating hours 0630-2230 [2300 on PPR].
Gatwick [45Km E to ESE of us]: Reduced night flying but still operational.
Gatwick runway [aligns ENE to WSW]: 70% landings & take-offs are from east to west.
We are not even close to the UK notification zone for these airports. Our most powerful laser wont stray into that zone.
We operate safely in a "normal flight zone"...
In all cases, our lasers have a stated NOHD [nominal occular hazard distance] of under 150m. An aircraft will not fly within 150m of us!
Even if our site was classed as a "sensitive zone", we would easily satisfy the maximum advised irradiance [2.6 mW/cm²] as long as the aircraft was beyond 700m away. Again, we are never that close to an aircraft. I dont think we've seen any within 5 Km during our operational times [2300-0300 and occasionally 0400-0500].
Further safety measures: we almost exclusively deploy the lasers within an arc from SE to SW. Thus our beams fall south of the most westerly point of Gatwick's Notification Zone [26Km away].
TAG Farnborough [13Km NNE, the only airport within 40Km]:
We ONLY operate our lasers well outside the fixed operating hours [0700-2200] for this business aviation airport. It is possible that an aircraft might require to make emergency landing outside those hours, so it is good to know that we are well ouside the UK's [CAA] Aerodrome Notification Zone [see picture].
By US/ICAO guideline, our safe-hours practice puts us in the "normal flight zone."
Safety Plus: By using an automatic 'Goto' telescope, the fixed laser beam follows the planet exactly so we can study the sky and flightradar24 [app] for any encroaching aircraft.
We do not deploy the laser until target planet is confirmed through the telescope [or finderscope].
American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors [and same recommendations from ICAO]:
Laser Free Zone for 5 nautical miles radius from Aerodrome Reference Point [ARP] - usually the centre of the main runway.
Critical Flight Zone radiating out another 5 nautical miles [to the 10 nautical miles point].
A variably applied optional 'Sensitive Zone' which allows for a maximum irradiance of 100 microwatts/cm2
Finally, in the normal flight zone , the NOHD (nominal optical hazard distance) is based on irradiance levels for a maximum irradiance value of 2.6 mW/cm² for CW lasers.

In UK: CAP 736: Operation of Directed Light, Fireworks, Toy Balloons and Sky Lanterns within UK Airspace [CAA: Civil Aviation Authority UK]...

With regard to laser and targetted light:
The UK approach, which has been established for several years, does not prescribe precise dimensions for such zones around each UK airport, but considers that a Notification Zone exists around every UK aerodrome within which laser emissions must be controlled. Restrictions then apply:
a) within three nautical miles of an aerodrome’s notified Aerodrome Reference Point (ARP) or similar; or
b) within ten nautical miles of the notified ARP along the track of the extended runway centreline and 500 metres either side of said centreline [see picture left]

We've done detailed analysis of our 4 nearest airports and can declare ourselves fully safe to operate within limits: We only deploy lasers outdoors between 2300-0300 and occasionally 0400-0500.
The only airport within 40km of our astronomy office and outdoor sites is not 24hr. TAG Farnborough Airport operates 0700-2200 [except for emergency]. It is UK's only dedicated business aviation airport. Click buttons [left] for detail on our safe laser practice.
We carefully operate within the "normal zone"
Safe South? We deploy lasers within the arc from SE to SW
Further room for error?...
We have approximated the earth's variable air mass effects [treating light out just as light in and averaging effects without factoring in monochromatic issues eg blue light scattering]; we have relied largely on laser manufacturer's  reported specs [although we have seen the testing of products produced by both companies, Skytechlasers and WickedLasers, which gives us reassurance for this]; we have hugely approximated the relative motion between Earth and Mars; we rely on targetting and clear line of sight without any actual detector to confirm photon impacts upon Mars [thus operator error or incorrect targetting [ie "thats not Mars!"].
Lots of online searching and physics forums interrogation...
We conclude that, within the margins of acceptable error, we really are delivering a small but significant number of energetic photons to Mars (x quadrillions per second).
This is sufficient for a non zero effect...and a positive non zero effect at that. The method is in keeping with some future pre-terraforming studies. It may even spark life!
Together with our repeated Claims of Posession [of Mars] made in 'Astronomic' Morse Code, internet [website, twitter, spacespeak], email [UN and UK senior Politic] and in public real-life; plus our robust planning for a Mars Territory Trust [requiring UN trustee, UN as first contingent beneficiary and claimants as secondary beneficiaries], we thus state that we have covered the key requirements to gain "First Possession" and Registered Title to Mars [via Factual Possession / Effective Occupation].
So, within the margins of error...
Although we state that our pretty simple calculations do elegantly deliver consistent results [on comparisons and cross-testing], we have left them available for others to critique in the science section.
We dont expect to see fundamental errors exposed, but we do acknowledge some variable components, perhaps not fully accounted for...
Note: We do include video and photographic evidence of our laser targetting: this is good visual evidence, but essentially non confirmatory of significant impact upon Mars. Certainly Mars does not light up!
See next button for more info...
Although we reckon that we are hitting Mars plumb-centre most of the time, it is the nature of beam divergence that means we have, at very least, a beam diameter >5x the diameter of Mars [our 100mW red laser with only 0.5 mrad divergence when Mars is close at opposition]... more normally our beam widths are >30x the diameter of Mars. Thus we have some 'safety netting' whereby a slight directional error can still result in photons smashing into Mars. We have mentioned before that incident intensity such as >120 Million photons [per Sq Km per second] have been achieved... however this figure presumes uniform spread of photons within the beam. In truth, the beam is symmetrical but more intense in the centre than at the edges. So if we are as sharply targetted on Mars as we think we are,  then that figure might read upwards of 200 Million.

We recently managed similar numbers of photons hitting Mars with a red 100mW laser and a blue 3500mW (3W) laser... approx 4.5 Quadrillion photons/s [the red laser, though weaker, had better reported divergence]. However, the higher energy of the blue photons meant that they delivered a greater amount of energy to the planet [2mW compared with 1.3mW]. This, while impressive, is still a trillion times less light energy than Mars gets from all starlight at night.

However, if a laser of comparable strength could be placed in orbit around Mars and a beam regularly delivered [off/on over weeks] to a small testing area [25 Sq Metres], the closely observed effects on molecular chemical / physical changes in soil and local atmosphere would be most valuable. Organic chemical changes or even unicellular life might even feature. It is known that a relatively small amount of additional heat/light (with maybe 3 degrees change in local temperature) would not only benefit photosynthetic life, but on a wider scale could initiate the CO2 driven greenhouse effect which could provide a liveable and more stable atmosphere [though not initially breathable, it would remove the need for pressure suits, provide some cosmic protection and make agriculture/farming easier.].

Thus our current methods could be further modelled to deliver valuable pre-terraforming experiments and then figure in the actual terraforming process [atmosphere adjustments and algaculture / crop farming].
Islands in the beam
Margin for Error
Just a 3 degree temperature hike might make all the difference for Mars habitation:
Might lasers be utilized in the atmospheric modification process?
Are there extremophile organic lifeforms just crying out for a bit more light to really prosper?
Future pre-terrafoming studies:
As previously mentioned, our laser activities might be further developed for use in 'environment modification studies' ...using more local lasers [in Mars orbit?] targetting specific demarcated test areas. How might we finely tune the energy input to gain optimal greenhouse changes and organic benefit?...
Mars could use more light...
It may benefit [perhaps in unexpected organic ways] from the intoduction of monochromatic light beams, both red and blue.
We preferentially use monochromatic blue and red laser light. We already know from recent studies that some plants grow or reproduce faster under red-blue light combinations. Many scientists [including James Lovelock] state that blue to ultraviolet light [high energy solar radiation] was crucial for life's formation and continuation. So... might we even spark life on Mars with our 3.5 W blue laser?

Our lasers could cause good effect in certain planetary areas [peripolar zones at seasons' change?] where minimal extra light energy will result in C02 sublimation [gas release] and perhaps water from ice. These non-zero effects would be regarded as positive enviromental / atmospheric occurances. Any primitive photosynthetic life would prosper both directly from the incident light and those other small enviromental effects.

What might alien algae or bacteria look like?...
Might alien algae thrive on red/blue light?
LIFE? ... but not as we know it...
Might our 3.5W blue laser spark life on Mars?
Well, that's a looooong shot.... but if there is no primitive life yet, we do still think that there might be sufficient organic chemistry there to provide for life. The regular 'zapping' by our high energy blue photons might just break chemical bonds and trigger life.
From primitive unicellular extremophile beginnings, we might find that added red light [or red-blue combos] encourages the growth of increasingly complex life: Mars-fields full of alien algal fronds?

Could our red/blue laser use today suggest a way forward for Mars tomorrow?
Might we even trigger this?
Red light dependent, abundant plant-life?
Remember, Mars is Category 3 land [or 4 is there was one!]:
I've previously quoted the Professors McDougal, Lasswell and Vlasic, who summarized that such land that is not imminently ready for settlement and does not have resources easily available for trade, is land for which Effective Occupation only requires a demonstrable intent to occupy and some early administrative efforts. We have satisfied that and much more! ... and we do want to properly settle Mars... hence my documented past approaches to Mars-One and Spacex. Even if our founder doesn't get to go, perhaps we could convince a NASA astronaut of our 'Good Intentions' and so join us in our "single act of possession" by claiming the planet for us all when he sets foot there in 2030! That might further reinforce our claim don't you think?...
Administration / Governance
Our plans for a Martian Territorial Trust under UN Trusteeship (The Mars Trust) are sufficient to prove the required level of administrative activity and governance in order for continuous "Factual Possession" or "Effective Occupation" to be fully applied. Should it be necessary, we could also request consideration of "tele-possession" ... given that our remote activities have effect on Mars and we monitor all this using an astronomical telescope.
First Possession:
Having checked that our science and math are reasonable, we've been declaring possession of Mars (by laser Morse code, radio [spacespeak], internet[twitter] and voice). We've repeatedly but safely 'lasered' planet Mars over the last 6 years. We have video, photographic and witness signatory evidence. We believe our regular laser activity has a non-zero positive effect and is in keeping with likely plans for future terraforming of Mars. We believe this attempt to experiment with, prepare and develop the land, is as much as an "owner-occupier" of Mars could be expected to currently do.  This activity, subject to "visual access" to Mars [good-year/bad-year due to Mars' eliptical orbit] should be regarded as continuous. ... and it should satisfy requirment for First Possession.
So, what are we doing again??!...
Ah yes... we want Space to be safe under an updated Space Treaty and we want the UN (initially, at least) to hold all celestial bodies in Trust.

We're going to make that happen by gaining a legal right to possession and titled ownership of a celestial body [Mars]... that way we will have the leverage required to get the job done.

We are now going to give away or sell claims to Martian land, the claimants names being registered on our files. Through having multiple claimants, all generally intent on pursuing these stated goals, more effective pressure is applied to the UN. Each claimant gets a  Claim Certificate and a Declaration Of Intent from us to attempt to register our common claim to Mars via the UN. The Declaration Of Intent further states that should we thus gain registered Title to Marsian land, it should be as tenants in common. The detail will be described in a Deed of Trust, raised by the UN who will also become trustee to the Trust [The Mars Trust]. All claimants will automatically become beneficiaries of The Mars Trust.  However, although tenants in common [with unequal shares] is proposed, the full terms [including the possible need to accept contingent beneficiary status] will be negotiated into the Trust Deeds. At the outset,  as per our declaration of intent, the UN will be afforded opportunity to buy the claims [at registration] or shares at a preferential rate for a fixed period of time. At or before 10 Oct 2017, the UN will have the conditional right to each claim for a nominal $1000 USD sum paid to each claimant. This is a conditional right, with the requirement that a newly ratified Space Treaty be in place and UN to assume Celestial Trusteeship. With each passing odd (alternate) year after 10 Oct 2017, the nominal fee doubles in amount! See our Declaration of Intent (which comes with each claim) for details on all this. On 10 Oct 2038, in the absence of a new ratified Space Treaty, The Mars Trust may be dissolved and land divided. Hence the "unequal shares": unless a prior land preference claim was acquired, the vast majority of  claimants/shareholders will receive their final plot of land via random lottery [the smallest being 9 sq km and largest 35 sq km!]. They then have the right to dispose or trade their land share as per their own wishes at market value.

NOTE: 10 Oct 2017 is 50 years from the original "Outer Space Treaty" coming into force. So this date, not being far in advance (at time of writing!), will place appropriate pressure upon UN to acknowledge and engage with us.
who thinks we're ok here?
Legal Roundup
Legal Issues:
If our communal claim is rejected...
For as long as the UN either ignore or reject our applications, The Mars Trust will not become formed/active and no shares or deeds can be issued. Nevertheless, the validity of all claims, as part of our single act of possession, will continue to stand strong into the future.
Money instead of land...
Our main goal is to get a new Space Treaty and UN Trusteeship of celestial bodies. Should we achive this, then our claimants will all get $$ money rather than land itself. Each share, although 'unequal', will require the same fee payment from UN to aquire the Mars land in Trust.
Unequal Shares?
If we are successful in registering our claim with the UN [and hence gain title registration] then all claimants should become tenants-in-common [or similar within Trust, with any modifications insisted by UN] with unequal shares. Why unequal shares? ... well, each share may ultimately equate to a single plot of land. Plots of land vary in size from 9 Sq Km [smallest] to 35 Sq Km [largest].
[a single claim can be up to 35 Sq Km!!]
We say that Peace in Space is not secure. We say an updated Space Treaty and UN Trusteeship of Space would be good for business [eg mining] and good for Peace-in-Space [SPeACE].
We now want people to join us here. We'd like you to support our views, but even if you don't [and just want to grab cheap celestial land], that's OK, because by building our numbers we bring pressure to bear upon UN and Space Faring Nations to get their act[s] together. So come on, make a Mars Land Claim with us!... Oh, and Early Birds get to claim land for FREE!

We can't give you deeds right now ... we don't have the right to do that...not yet. No National Body can do it either [see the current Space Treaty rules]. Only a universally approved Registry Body could give us Title Deeds to Martian land.... there's only one game in town for that, the UN. It could do it alright ... create a Celestial Registry, for one time only! So we will hound the UN to acknowledge our claim. On one hand we are demanding legal consideration and with the other open palm we present a turnkey solution for the UN:  with legal justification we give the UN Trusteeship of not only Mars, but to all celestial land in the Solar System. That's right, we want the UN to hold Celestial Land for all Humanity... in order to do that they must ratify a new peace-securing, business-savvy Space Treaty AND pay just a nominal fee [$1000 at 10 Oct 2017 but DOUBLING EVERY ODD YEAR after that] to each of our land claimants.  That's right, you are rather more likely to get money than Mars ... but that's really what we want. Of course, if by 2038 the UN haven't stepped up, then the land, if registered by then, WILL go to our claimants, each and every one. The plots [variable sizes, some are ~ 35 Sq Km!!] will be allocated by lottery, except for those claimants who have filed a preference claim. Through this lottery, every claimant gets a plot.

Oh yeah, there are various internet companies dishing out deeds for planets & moons at $25 an acre or similar... but REALLY ... we all know how valid they are! Their certificates state "this is a novelty gift" so they stay legal. Those deeds are like the "World's Best Dad" certificates ... nice fun gifts as long as you know the score. I've even got one from 1997 for 10 Sercas on the Moon (1,777.58 acres apparently!). The prices have sure shot up since! ... those acres now cost upwards of $25000!! ... and yet, apart from showing my intent to hold celestial land goes back 20 years, we all know I won't get my lunar land and mining rights with that certificate. No, I'm afraid the only way to 'openly' get new land, either on Earth or on Mars, is either through forceful acquisition [unfortunately still happening] or legitimate actions that satisfy the laws that apply.
Does that look like land ?? More like a beermat to me.
Time To Gather Numbers
Declaration of Intent
All new claimants will receive a downloadable Claim Certificate plus a copy of our Declaration of Intent.
The Declaration of Intent sets out our plan for gaining UN registration of title, plus the outline for The Mars Trust. This should provide the basis for a UN drafted Deed of Trust for The Mars Trust.
Through the Declaration of Intent, should our registration via UN be successful, all claimants will either receive a fee payment from UN or actual Mars land.
This form is based on [but not copied from] the UK Land Registry's FR1 [application for first registration].
On thus form we indicate our desire to be registered as tenants in common [all of us claimants together].
Claim Certificate
After downloading, you must clearly write your name and date on the certificate. From 2017 it will be possible to transfer or sell a claim certificate, a process that requires input from the Mars Register and a small administrative fee. Details of the process will be advised later in 2016. NOTE: keep you claim certificate safe. It could become a VERY valuable document to your decendants, even if during your life you dont get you hands on actual Mars land. Of course, we will maintain the key Register of all claimants for such future purposes.
All new claimants will receive a land claim certificate and a declaration of intent. Each claimant's name and email address will be filed within the Mars Register.
We will then also attempt to register all claims via monthly applications to UN, using the new MARSREG 1 form. We have modelled the MARSREG 1 form on an existing  UK Government Land Registry form: the Application for First Registration [FR1].
Within the form we state that we are bundling all our claimants together with us in our "single act of possession" [a term pivotal to land acquisition by adverse possession]. We are thus requesting that the "UN Registry" [once formed] will award title ownership of the Mars land to us all to hold in Trust as tenants in common (*) with unequal shares [why unequal? on]. *Quite probably we (all of us land claimants) will be required to accept an alternative status, that being "contingent beneficiary", for the first 20 years of the Trust. This allows protected time for UN to get its act together and update the Space Treaty.

A Deed of Trust will be composed to add required detail w.r.t The Mars Trust [composed in consultation with UN and in line with our Declaration of Intent]. Each claimant will be allocated one share which, in a defined circumstance, will entitle the claimant to a plot of land. In that circumstance, the land allocation for all claimants will be done by random lottery [except for a possible small number of claimants whom have acquired land preference claims]. All claimants would then receive a plot of land. The alternative circumstance is where the UN pays $$$$ to each claimant for all shares (see previous page).

Plots vary in size from 9 Sq Km to 35 Sq Km (yes, they are huge), hence the "unequal shares."
The Mars Land Claim form plus
the new MARSREG 1 application
Paperwork, paperwork!
Commerce and Politics
We are keen to gather a swell of support from significant international business and political groups in order to positively influence the UN and the relevent Space Faring Countries [ie. towards a new commerce friendly Space Treaty/Deal which also secures peace in Space; plus support for the UN Trusteeship model applied to Near Space (solar system)].
Lawyers [international law **]
We are very keen to recruit opinion [and of course support] from significant academic and practicing lawyers in this complex field of law [looking at the legal basis of our claim plus the optimal legal construct for the future Mars Trust].
Scientists [physicists **]
We are approaching prominent scientists to advise us further on our laser-related actions [wrt photons delivered to Mars, the likely effect, plus any relation to future pre-terraforming experiments and the terraforming process itself]. We are delighted to have significant scientists join us in this effort.
Now with claims being filed, applications for title registration can be sent to UN. In order to positively influence this process, we now approach professionals, business people, politicians and space industry specialists for advice and/or support. For professionals, read academic and practising lawyers, physicists and space scientists. Negative opinions and criticism, honestly provided, will still be most valuable. Through this process we should be more effective in communicating our mission and gain traction, not only through increasing numbers of supporters/claimants, but in media coverage plus political, legal and scientific appreciation. In this way we may gain sufficient momentum to provoke a UN decision to officially assess our application.

So, clear vision, business transparency and effective communication is most important:

1/ We need to clearly show that our scientific and legal basis is sufficiently robust.
2/ We need to clearly articulate our mission: New Space Treaty and UN Trusteeship of "Near Space" [solar system].
3/ We admit to modest commercial goals [land claims are free or low cost], such that, with >200,000 land claims, we might become cost neutral. It depends on the cost of legal due process. We are most unlikely to make any profit although we are happy to! Such a business model is in keeping with our commerce-friendly goals for UN Near-Space Trusteeship.
4/ We clearly articulate the possible (from likely to unlikely) outcomes for would-be land claimants.
5/ We need to gain support from influencial people, parties and organizations in order to apply credible pressure upon the UN.
Effective Communication
Building momentum
Getting the Legal Assessment:
In truth, we believe that if we can get the UN to formally assess our claim then the result is barely in question .. a successful registration should follow.
So, getting the UN to formally assess our claim is key.
A "No" from UN:
A "No" from UN means we continue to lobby, raise support and gather ever more claimants. We will then restart MARSREG1 applications to UN.  We also continue all laser related activities throughout [in line with continuous possession of Mars land].
A "YES" to title registration from UN:
A "YES" form the UN means the immediate formation of The Mars Trust [we expect UN to craft the Deed of Trust using our Declaration of Intent]. We expect each claimant to become a single shareholder - we propose as tenants in common [but UN may wish to modify this proposed position].
So, assuming the UN does eventually acknowledge our claim and commit to formal legal assessment:
In that case we believe that our legal grounding is technically sufficient to gain title to Mars' land... however, its by no means highly likely. We will need to work hard in our legal presentation.
*It satisfies the International Law requirements [actual possession / effective occupation; plus governance / administrative activity]
*It is not barred by any of the elements within The Space Treaty [ not sovereignty related; no in-space "activity"; no objects sent into space [although described as both waves and particles, photons have no resting mass and, according to physicists, are not "objects"].
The grouping together of many claimants under one single act of possession is already recognised as a valid means of land acquisition and title award ([eg. English Law, "adverse possession"].

Our initial goal is to use the high media profile of the legal due process to publicly show the weakness in space law and sting UN COPUOS into updating the Space Treaty (to make it relevant again, and also to keep 'nukes' out of space).

Hopefully, a legal registration of Mars land title will be gained. In this situation, we would expect the UN to go on to produce a solidly ratified Space Treaty and thus be ready to pay each claimant the nominal fee for each claim/share. We, the land claimants, will probably have contingent beneficiary status within the Trust for up to 21 years, which allows the UN time to get organised. Given the climbing fees (to the UN) as time goes on,  we would expect prompt Treaty update and equally prompt payment of nominal fee by UN to each claimant [rather than land division/distribution]. Nominal fee is just $1000 to each claimant in year 1, but would be $1Million by year 20 (10.10.2037 = 70th anniversary of the Outer Space Treaty).
Will this actually happen?... Maybe
Decisions, decisions...
Legal Issues:
10 Oct 2017?
This is the 50yr anniversary of the original Space Treaty coming into force. We are using this date to initiate financial pressure upon UN, in order to get a new Space Treaty and UN Trusteeship of Near-Space [solar system].
Starting at $1000 USD on 10 Oct 2017, the nominal fee to be paid by UN to each claimant will double each odd year until 10 Oct 2037 (=$1Million). If by 10.10.2038 the land claim is officially registered, but the UN has not delivered on its requirements as per the Deed, then the Trust may be dissolved and land divided / issued to claimants.
If not tenants in common, what then?
As long as the UN composed Deed of Trust is solidly based upon our Declaration of Intent, we would be content to have our status [within Trust] described as contingent beneficiaries rather than tenants in common. This would likely protect the Trust from individual shareholder problems such as bankruptcy.
Tenants in Common?
We are requesting, via MARSREG 1 application [and the Declaration of Intent], that UN Registry will award Mars land title to us all, to be held in Trust [The Mars Trust], with all of us claimants as tenants-in-common. This is a legally defined position whereby we all own the "whole" of the land although each has just one share. We describe unequal shares, because if the time comes to award land to each share, it will be done by random lottery. Land plots vary in size. It may be that UN [as designated trustee for The Mars Trust], through the registration process, will need to alter our status away from tenants in common.
If registration of title is successful, then The Mars Trust will be formed via a Deed of Trust composed by ourselves & UN [using our Declaration of Intent as the key guide].  It is our intent receive title into Trust as 'tenants in common' [with unequal shares]. However, UN may wish to draft some significant changes into a Deed of Trust which might give all of us [claimants=shareholders] a contingent beneficiary status. This would likely be required if UN could not immediately deilver a new Space Treaty but wished to secure the Mars land until they did. We are content for UN to do this as long as the Deed of Trust adheres to the core elements of our Declaration of Intent.
So what if we all become contingent beneficiaries of The Mars Trust rather then tenants in common?...what does that mean for us?
Well, it still means that our benefit from the Trust is contingent upon UN actions, but will, by latest date 10 Ot 2038, result in either a payment sum or actual Mars land going to each claimant [shareholder].
You see, UN must get a ratified new Space Treaty and pay each of us claimants a nominal fee in order to acquire the land for future trusteeship. If neither of these is complete by 10 Oct 2038 then, under the terms of the Deeds, the trust may be dissolved and Mars land divided. Each plot of land will be awarded to each shareholder by lottery [unless shareholder had acquired a preference land claim]. Land plots will vary from 9 Sq Km to 35 Sq Km [yes, very large areas of land!].
With respect to the nominal fee to be paid by UN.  Once the new Space Treaty is ratified, it may then pay the fees to each land claimant. Until 10 Oct 2017 [50th anniversary of original Space Treaty], the fee will be just $1000 USD. However, this fee will double in amount biennially, such that by 10 Oct 2037 it would be just over $1 Million. Thus there is some financial pressure applied upon UN to deliver on Space Treaty and trusteeship.
Deed of Trust to be solidly based upon our Delaration of Intent.
The Mars Trust
Extended rights:
As owner of land, we would expect you to also own mining rights to ground below.
100 Sq Km is bigger than islands of Santorini or Mykonos!
A compact skyscraper city could one day sit there, perhaps bearing your name!
Marble Mars Globe:
Feel free to use the Mars Globe:
[ ]
Mapped from Voyager images, it is free to download so you may view all the potential land plots.
Alternatively go to our Media Section to view the globe.
Land on Mars might come to you or your descendants, courtesy of you claim registered with the Mars Register.
Even if UN ignore or reject our applications now, your claim [we state] is SO MUCH stronger than any existing claim to Mars land. With our efforts to prove legal possession it will be difficult for future attempts at land acquisition to get past your claims. So, with that in mind, what sort of land might you get?. Well, unless you stump up for a land preference claim, you will join the vast majority of claimants in a Mars land lottery. All claimants will get a land plot. Plots are described by lines of longitude and latitude [plus minutes and seconds as per traditional planetary coordinates]. Thus the largest plots are equatorial [35 Sq Km approx] and the smallest are peri-polar at 75 deg N or S [9 Sq Km approx]. The actual poles are not allocated to claimants, instead being held in trust for all Humanity, a res communis. So no land beyond 75 deg N or S is to be allocated to claimants.
Plots vary in size [9 to 35 Sq Km]
Mars: Land Plots
New Space Treaty or Deal:
We think the old treaty is about to fall, because it is not good for business. Yet we will then lose its strength against space weaponization. A new treaty needs to address commercial needs as well as peace.
UN Trusteeship will benefit both space business and 'SPeACE'
Will peace be lasting?
The better the new treaty is at accommodating commerce as well as limiting weaponization, the more likely it will hold. However, it is the UN Trusteeship model that we believe will really guarantee future peace in space.
Mars claim could deliver Peace in Space:
We are looking to 'force' a new Space Treaty between space faring nations.
We want the UN to assume Trusteeship in Space [as per the UN Trusteeship Council].
Peace for Earth, Mars & Space?

We say that through our Mars claim we are gifting the UN a turnkey solution for Space Commerce and Peace:
A new business-friendly Space Treaty/Deal which also secures peace [no unilateral weaponization of space] plus the UN Trusteeship of Near Space [solar system].

As co-claimants to Mars land, you will join us in the successful delivery of a new business and peace solution for Space.
Could we, through our Mars claim,
help the UN provide for such peace?
The Missing Peace?
We think it more likely that UN will 'pay-off' our claimants [ourselves] than permit us to divide up Mars land for individual ownership.
It is in their interest to act quickly: the nominal fee until 10 Oct 2017 is only $1000 USD, but it doubles biennially, such that by 10 Oct 2037 it exceeds $1 Million [paid to each claimant].
The UN must pay claimants a 'nominal' fee
UN Pay-off
We see UN Trusteeship as being the BEST guarantee for peace in space. This is because it can effectively manage space commerce whilst still holding the celestial lands for all humanity. This, together with a good new Space Treaty, should massively reduce the likelihood of conflict in space.
We hope that UN Trusteeship of Mars will just be the start... ideally UN should assume trusteeship of all Near Space [solar system].
Although the original Space Treaty and the Moon Agreement try to reserve all celestial bodies for the 'benefit of Mankind', we think that a little presumptious. Whilst we might take some risk [Alien provocation] in "peacefully declaring possession and ownership of Mars", we think that the Space Treaty goes too far [ALL Space for Mankind?.. that pronouncement could rattle a distant Alien intelligence]. It should restrict itself to the Solar System at this time.
A template for the Solar System?
MARS: UN Trusteeship
Mining an asteroid...
The rights to mine and sell the product is all agreed in contract.
However, the right to own the whole asteroid?.. likely this will depend on size. That will be decided via UN Trusteeship Council.
Finally, with a workable new Space Treaty and UN Trusteeship, contracts can be negotiated and signed and massive investment procured.
So the UN Trusteeship Council, as applied to space, will need to be business savvy, highly efficient and responsive yet responsible.
Mining in Space requires HUGE investment
Space Commerce can flourish
In line with our current activity [using laser light energy to release CO2 gas via sublimation of dry-ice], the future terraformers may first wish to obtain a working atmospheric pressure by really heating the polar ice caps. A temperature rise of just 3 degrees may trigger the greenhouse reaction required. This may involve the use of giant orbiting mirrors, super-power lasers or nuclear events [or a combination]. Once that has been achieved [and maintained/stabilized], there may be further efforts at atmospheric adjustements, namely towards breathability. That means O2 production.
Settlements help to replenish their atmosphere using high yield algal insulation and paint
Terraforming Mars: Atmosphere
With no real magnetosphere and then an unstable atmosphere, a breathable, pressurized environment will take a very long time to establish and would require constant maintenance. Protection against cosmic rays would also need to be achieved, perhaps though some form of shielding.
Hundreds of Oxy-Gens run 24/7 in the Martian Skies
Terraforming Mars: Atmosphere 2
The likely end result of terraforming will be cities. What started as rough, isolated mining and farming based hamlets, has grown into a scattering of 'Sealed Cities'. Initially they may require barrier isolation from the exterior, for ambient pressure, breathability and radiation protection.
A future murky Mars Monday
Mars: Early cities
Would you like to have a City named after you?
Think about it ... if you would, then advise us of the preferred name. We will keep that on record.
What if the UN ignores our registration applications? ... they are still strong claims and should last forever!...

It may be that your land claim to Mars does not come to fruition in your lifetime .. or even your Grandchildrens' lifetimes... however, with your claim being a strong one, posterity may be the winner...

Your descendants may finally gain that 35 Sq Km of Martian land! ... and just maybe a city will one day sit there. Would it be such a surprise to find that your thankful descendants, rich and philanthropic as they are, have named the city after you?... After all, YOU made it possible for them.
Will your decendants name a City after you?
Name Your City!
The Airbrella
A personal air-enrichment pack which can be worn during extended periods outdoors
Once the atmosphere is sufficiently adjusted and stable, we may be able to 'take the air'... walk out into Mars cities and fields. Will our Mars decendents ever visit Earth? Will they speak Chinese, English, Esperanto or ?...
Walking through the streets of Mars
Metro Life ... Mars style
Get the foundations correct today, and we can ensure peaceful, magnificent Space collaborations between our great nations. We can achieve so much more. Currently the USA is showing the way, but with a new Space Treaty and UN Trusteeship in place, US companies [and NASA] can forge ahead with contracts secure, whilst the rest of us can surely learn and catch up to join them. With Space equity secure under UN Trusteeship, we can be more open to trusting each other and working together in Space.
Deep Space ventures will be collaborations
To boldly go...
outerspeace- peace for mars and space
Mars Merch
OUTERSPeACE T-shirts and other branded merchandice can be purchased via our online shop.
If you have comments [positive or negative-but-constructive] to help us with our journey, please get in touch.
Outerspeace and Mars Register [the same people]
Registration of your Mars claim will be made through Mars Register rather than OUTERSPeACE.
The future plan for Outerspeace is as a purely charitable organisation.
As well as being a parent organisation to the Mars Register, OUTERSPeACE represents our end-goal: the securement of lasting peace in space. We see this being achieved through earnest multinational co-operation and collaboration. This requires structure, such that we advocate a new business-friendly Space Treaty/Deal which also limits space weaponization.

We say that UN Trusteeship applied to near-space celestial bodies [solar system], is a great method for facilitating space business ventures, whilst also preserving peace and celestial land for all Humanity.

We propose that under UN Trusteeship, a pro-commerce Space User Group should responsibly manage the exploitation and protection of celestial land.

We are trying to make this happen: go to the NEWS section to find out how we are getting on in the national/international courts!
Let's make it happen!
Peace in Outer Space